Renovated Out: a Juvenile Barosaurus at the American Museum of Natural History

Today, a massive, 122-foot long sauropod occupies the American Museum of Natural History’s Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Orientation Center. Before its introduction in 2016, however, an immature, 24-foot long sauropod occupied the center. This sculpture of a juvenile Barosaurus was the modest centerpiece of the Wallach Orientation Center for most of the AMNH’s modern history. Created in 1996, the model stayed in New York for about 18 years until it was dethroned by the titanosaur, shifting it to Cleveland and back out again.

In the AMNH

Floorplan of the American Museum of Natural History's 4th floor Fossil Halls.
The modern layout of the AMNH fossil halls. The Wallach Orientation Center, which held the sauropod of focus, is in the top left. Source

For nearly a decade before 1995, the American Museum of Natural History’s fossil halls were in the process of a massive renovation. All six halls were renovated, creating a layout rooted in cladistics. One smaller hall (once the Earth History Hall and the highly bigoted Hall of the Age of Man) was recreated as the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Orientation Center. Named after businessman Ira D. Wallach and his wife, this center covered key paleontological concepts featured in the other five halls. Behind a decently-sized theater, our juvenile Barosaurus was installed in 1996.

Barosaurus, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Orientation Center, American Museum of Natural History, Upper West Side, Manhattan, July 12, 2013
The juvenile Barosaurus sculpture as installed in the Orientation center. Source

The Barosaurus model was plainly colored and posed similarly to the juvenile “Barosaurus” skeleton in the museum’s main rotunda. However, that skeleton is now thought to belong to Kaatedocus, not Barosaurus (making the actual basis of this model ambiguous). The sculpture stands in dry terrain, with footprints trailing behind it. It was relatively small, standing just higher than a person at the shoulder. According to the museum, the model’s purpose was to “suggest central themes of the fossils halls: what science can reveal about long-extinct life forms and what mysteries remain unsolved.”

Make Way for the Titanosaur

American Museum of Natural History workers taking apart a sculpture of a juvenile Barosaurus.
AMNH workers helping the juvenile Barosaurus perform autotomy. Source

In 2016, with the discovery of a new giant titanosaur in Patagonia, it was time for Barosaurus to leave the Orientation Center. To make way for a skeletal cast of what would soon be Patagotitan mayorum, the sculpture was smashed open and sawed apart. The neck and head were severed from the torso, along with the tail. This sectioning allowed it to be easily transported to other institutions. Additionally, the whole Orientation Center was redesigned to accomodate and revolve around its new resident.

Skeletal cast of Patagotitan mayorum at the American Museum of Natural History.
The Orientation Center’s new tenant. Photo by the author.

Now breaking headlines with the titanosaur, the Wallach Orientation Center was finally in the spotlight. At a length that was nearly six times that of Barosaurus, Patagotitan was too large for the Orientation Center. Its neck and tail extend out of the room, giving the center an immediately imposing presence. Displays are now more focused on the main dinosaur (which seizes attention far easier than the juvenile Barosaurus). However, our Barosaurus would find another museum to be featured in.

Into the Forest City

Juvenile sculpture of Barosaurus on display at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.
Barosaurus, reinstalled at Cleveland’s Museum of Natural History in 2016. Source

Our Barosaurus was removed from the American Museum of Natural History at the beginning of 2016. By May, however, the three sections of the sauropod were being reattached in Cleveland, Ohio. In the city’s Museum of Natural History, a somewhat more modest display was being constructed for the sculpture. This temporary display featured the juvenile Barosaurus on a small lime platform, accompanied by simple signage and a mid-sized mural.

The signage for this display focused on the reconstruction of this model, describing a fossilized skin impression at Toronto’s Royal Ontario Museum that informed the texture of this sculpture. It also covered the reconstruction of incomplete fossil taxa, noting that the skull of this model was inferred from fellow diplodocids. However, by the end of the year, the exhibition concluded, and our juvenile Barosaurus doesn’t seem to have been featured in a museum since.


American Museum of Natural History. (n.d.). Miriam and Ida D. Wallach Orientation Center. American Museum of Natural History.

Dingus, L. (1996). Next of Kin: Great Fossils at the American Museum of Natural History. Rizzoli International Publications, Inc.

Hall, L [@paleeoguy]. (2016, May 31). Our juvy #Barosaurus exhibit is done! Exhibits staff did a phenomenal job! (I helped draft the label copy.) [Tweet]. Twitter.

Miller, S. (2016, January 13). New Dinosaur Poses Question: Does This Museum Make Me Look Fat? The New York Times.

Renovated Out: Pteranodon at the Field Museum

Just a few years ago, the Field Museum’s grand Stanley Field Hall held two representatives of the Mesozoic. One was the original mount of “SUE” the Tyrannosaurus, imposingly capturing eyes upon entrance. The other soared above, catching glances on the same floor as “SUE”‘s portrait. This was a model of the famous pterosaur Pteranodon longiceps, hanging near a marble muse representing the dissemination of knowledge.

In 2018, however, both the dinosaur and pterosaur were replaced by one dinosaur and eleven pterosaurs. As many already know, “SUE” returned to a personalized display on the second floor. On the other hand, the pterosaur with a 25-foot long wingspan seems to have retired from public life.

A Marker for the Fossil Halls

Brachiosaurus altithorax skeletal cast on display in the Field Museum's Stanley Field Hall.
A festive Stanley Field Hall, circa somesmallnumberofyears after the Jurassic Park film. Not a single pterosaur in sight. Source

Before there was any possibility of our Pteranodon model entering the museum, Brachiosaurus held Stanley Field Hall. This replica of one of the Field Museum’s most famous discoveries arrived in 1993, foreshadowing the unveiling of “Life over Time”, the museum’s new fossil exhibit. However, in 1997, two slightly large companies (Disney and McDonalds) helped the Field obtain “SUE” the Tyrannosaurus, and reforms began.

The entrance to the Field Museum's "Evolving Planet" exhibit.
The original entrance to “Evolving Planet”. Source

In Stanley Field Hall, Brachiosaurus was replaced (and moved to O’Hare International Airport) by Tyrannosaurus in 2000. To accompany this change, the young exhibit “Life Over Time” was reformed into “Evolving Planet”, a more serious walk through evolution. Guarded by a large globe and two large display cases representing the diversity of life, it sat on the second floor of the museum. Only when “Evolving Planet” was unveiled in 2006 would our Pteranodon model arrive as the second archosaur in Stanley Field Hall.

Sculpture of Pteranodon longiceps in Stanley Field Hall at the Field Museum of Natural History.
Another holiday season in the Field Museum, but now with a toothless wing. Photo by the author.

The pterosaurian subject of this post was built by CM Studio, a model company in southern Illinois. Headed by Charlie McGrady and his nephew Brian Page, the studio had already created several models of extant mammals and extinct Mesozoic animals. With “Evolving Planet” in 2006, Pteranodon longiceps was suspended 30 feet above “SUE”.

With a brownish body, a striped orange crest, and some white undersides, the large pterosaur was a conspicuous sight. Additionally, the specific placement of Pteranodon was chosen to serve “Evolving Planet”. Hanging right in front of the exhibit, the model pinpointed the location of the fossils for any visitor in Stanley Field Hall. During its decade-long tenure, it would also be subject to a common Chicagoan practice.

Sculpture of Pteranodon longiceps wearing a Chicago Bulls jersey at the Field Museum of Natural History's Stanley Field Hall.
A snugly fitting Bulls jersey on the Field’s pterosaur. Source

Elsewhere in the Windy City, the Art Institute of Chicago’s lions can be seen wearing a White Sox cap, a Blackhawks helmet, or, most recently, a mask adorned with the city flag. In Daley Plaza, the Chicago Picasso has donned another Sox cap. Closer to our subject, the Dissemination of Knowledge statue will even toss a jersey onto its baby.

When Pteranodon came to the Field, it was also absorbed into this tradition of costumes. Despite its odd body-plan, jerseys from several of the city’s teams were shimmied onto the pterosaur throughout its tenure (sometimes resulting in the costumeless “SUE” looking like the odd archosaur out). This often made it an even more striking sight, easily catching the attention of visitors from its height. However, this series only tackles retired displays, so next, Pteranodon would be deposed by a much larger pterosaur.

Out of Stanley Field

Sculpture of Quetzalcoatlus northropi at the Field Museum's Stanley Field Hall.
Pteranodon‘s giant replacement. Photo by the author.

In 2018, another donation by billionaire Kenneth C. Griffin (who had previously funded “Evolving Planet”) sparked another makeover of the Field Museum, this time in Stanley Field Hall. The most well-known of these changes was the replacement of “SUE” with “Máximo”, a mounted replica of the newly-discovered giant titanosaur Patagotitan. Additionally, 3D-printed hanging gardens were installed on the hall’s North side.

The majority of the organisms added to Stanley Field Hall, however, were pterosaurs. Along with a flock of nine Rhamphorhynchus and a duo of Pteranodon (sternbergi, not longiceps), our lone P. longiceps was replaced by one of two Quetzalcoatlus. Though it doesn’t appear that any costumes have adorned the new azhdarchid, this sculpture of one of the largest flying animals ever certainly marks “Evolving Planet”‘s location better.

Brachiosaurus skeletal mount dressed in a Chicago Cubs jersey outside of the Field Museum.
Brachiosaurus with a rotund Cubs jersey. Source

Out of the Field Museum’s two costume wearers, one remains. Though the status of Pteranodon longiceps appears unknown, the second replica of Brachiosaurus altithorax stands tall and proud outside of the museum. Like its fellow archosaur, it’s worn oversized jerseys from the Cubs, the Blackhawks, and the Bears. So, the retired pterosaur’s secondary role is fulfilled even after its removal.


Blue Rhino Studio. (2018, October 11). Chicago Field Museum|Stanley Field Hall Flying Pterosaurs.

Field Museum. (n.d.). Architecture.

Glut, D. F. (2001). Jurassic Classics: A Collection of Saurian Essays and Mesozoic Musings. McFarland & Company.

Lelièvre, M A. (2006). Evolving Planet: Constructing the Culture of Science at Chicago’s Field Museum. Anthropologica, 48(2), 293-296.

McGrady, Pat. (2006, July 26). The Field Museum. CM Studio.

Slepicka, P. (2016, September 14). CM Studio – Where The Prehistoric Meets The Present. The Journal-News.,21377

Zarley, B. D. (2015, June 15). The Art And Science Of Putting Large Chicago Blackhawks Helmets on Lions. Vice.

Renovated Out: The Monolophosaurus Holotype at the Paleozoological Museum of China

As a kid, I once found myself in the previous incarnation of Beijing’s Paleozoological Museum of China (PMC) while on occasional ventures to the home of the Forbidden City. As the exhibit space of the renowned Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), it predictably displayed and still displays some of the most significant paleontological finds from China. The specimen of focus today was the single fossil of a single-crested theropod, stuck halfway in a reddish or orangish (or perhaps even brownish) block. Naturally, after I viewed such an important fossil, the toddler version of me promptly forgot about its existence for around a decade.

Since my toddler days, I’ve obtained the knowledge that the theropod Monolophosaurus jiangi was a thing that existed. A small handful of years ago, I also rediscovered a blurry yet acceptable physical photo of the imprisoned theropod from the IVPP. At the same time, I also came across an extensive redescription of the Monolophosaurus genoholotype (IVPP V84019) by Stephen Brusatte and his colleagues. In particular, two sentences stood out: “The specimen is currently mounted for touring exhibition (Fig. 1). It is embedded in foam that obscures the bones so that they are only visible in right lateral view, and only rarely are portions of the ventral surfaces of the vertebrae exposed.” Finally, it took a delayed glance at Figure 1 itself to realize that the trapped theropod in my shoddy photograph was IVPP V84019.

As implied by the two words and colon in the title of this post, this (hopefully) will serve as the start of an irregular series where I’ll cover any fossils or exhibits that were once on display, but have since been retired. This first topic, as should be obvious at this point, is the Monolophosaurus jiangi holotype that was once on display in the PMC. In 2014, during an extensive renovation of the museum, it (along with many similarly tragic mounts) retreated from public exhibition.

A Traveling History

The M. jiangi holotype was first exposed to human eyes at the dawn of the ’80s in Xinjiang, an autonomous region in the northwest of China. Xijin Zhao, a paleontologist working for the IVPP, was in the middle of a project with the Xinjiang Petroleum Bureau’s Petroleum Stratigraphic Team. The discovery of this skeleton in the Middle Jurassic Wucaiwan Formation (now considered to be part of the Shishugou Formation) was one major outcome of that project. At the same time, the Chinese Communist Party, now led by Deng Xiaoping, was beginning a number of economic reforms that “opened” China up to the West. For paleontology, a major result of this was the creation of the Sino-Canadian Dinosaur Project (CCDP), a collaboration between the IVPP and Canada’s Royal Tyrrell Museum and Canadian Museum of Nature to provide each other with better opportunities to study the two countries’ dinosaur faunas.

The Monolophosaurus genoholotype, which included a complete skull and partial skeleton, had already been excavated by the IVPP one year before the CCDP’s establishment. The project’s team announced the find in October of 1987, using the informal name “Jiangjunmiaosaurus”. After years of even more prosperous research and excavation by the CCDP, IVPP V84019 was described by Zhao and Philip Currie as the holotype of the new species Monolophosaurus jiangi. The same year, the foundation that had organized the CCDP created a traveling exhibit named “The Greatest Show Unearthed”, among other titles.

Hadrosaurs and ornithomimosaurs imposingly stand in the giant tent that featured the CCPD’s discoveries. Source

“The Greatest Show Unearthed” opened in 1993 inside a tent covering six acres of exhibition space. Though Canadian and Chinese dinosaurs were both featured, the highlight was clearly on the latter. A collection of baby Pinacosaurus and a giant Mamenchisaurus skeleton were just some of the novel specimens displayed in an exhibit that seemed indistinguishable from a modern 21st-century fossil hall. The Monolophosaurus genoholotype was included in this exhibit as well, encased in a large foam block. Only the right side of the skeleton was observable in this hugely frustrating form, which would impede scientific research for years to come. For the time being, however, IVPP V84019 traveled the world, meeting the global eyes of the public.

Settling Down

Monolophosaurus jiangi holotype on display at the Paleozoological Museum of China.
The final display of Monolophosaurus in the Paleozoological Museum of China. Photo by the author.

“The Greatest Show Unearthed” did not travel the world infinitely, so Monolophosaurus was put on not-so-permanent display at the Paleozoological Museum of China. Alongside it were other foam-trapped dinosaur type specimens, including those of Sinraptor and Bellusaurus. Exhibited in a gallery near the entrance, this was when I had my first (and only) encounter with the horrific display.

In 2014, however, the PMC went through a massive renovation, revamping most of their major halls. Additionally, many significant fossils and mounts (including Monolophosaurus) were taken off display. At the renovation’s end, IVPP V84019 had been replaced by either a gift shop, a 4-D theater, or a gallery for temporary exhibitions. Though it was no longer in the public spotlight, the foam remained (and still remains).

The current resting place of the foam holotypes. Source

With its foam-trapped brethren, Monolophosaurus jiangi was moved to an IVPP satellite facility an hour away from Beijing. Separated into multiple pieces, the specimens continue to reside at this warehouse, presumably being researched (though any work would be impeded by the specimens’ red encasement). The holotype that many once gawked at now lies in a humbly remote building, trapped by the same mechanisms that originally thrust it into the spotlight.

The Monolophosaurus status quo. Source


Dong, Z. (1993). The field activities of the Sino-Canadian Dinosaur Project in China, 1987- 1990. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 30(10), 1997-2001.

Hendricx, C. [@Ch_Hendricx]. (2020, June 12). Interestingly, most of the cranial and postcranial material of the holotype of Sinraptor (and Monolophosaurus) is embedded in a hard [Tweet]. Twitter.

Hone, D. (2009, December 29). Monolophosaurus and Sinraptor. Dave Hone’s Archosaur Musings.

Hone, D. (2010, January 16). Bellusaurus. Dave Hone’s Archosaur Musings.

Nichols, M. & Howe, J. (1993, June 14). Giants of History: ‘The Greatest Show Unearthed’ presents dinosaurs in a new light. Maclean‘s.

Voell, P. (1993, August 19). Toronto’s Earthly Delights. The Buffalo News.

Zhao, X., Currie, P. J. (1993). A large crested theropod from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People’s Republic of China. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 30(10), 2027-2036.

Zhao, X., Benson, R. B. J., Brusatte, S. L., & Currie, P. J. (2010). The postcranial skeleton of Monolophosaurus jiangi (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, China, and a review of Middle Jurassic Chinese theropods. Geological Magazine, 147(1), 13-27.

The Exhibits and Models of Blue Horned Odd-Toed Ungulate Studio

In 1998, Tim Quady and David Leak, two museum workers, met at a museum services company in Minnesota. Soon after, both left to create Blue Rhino Studio, starting (as many great things have) in a garage with the aim of staying in business for at least six months. Their first project was a scaled-down replica of the Split Rock Lighthouse in Lake County. Accelerating, they moved into a much larger space in Bloomington a single month later.

Throughout the 2000s, Blue Rhino Studio worked on sculptures, murals, designs, and more in mini-golf courses, restaurants, and theaters. Early in their history, their first employee, Jim Burt, became Quady’s assistant (eventually becoming Blue Rhino’s lead sculptor). Eventually, they began working on dioramas, sculptures, and exhibits for museums.

Two replicas of animals from distinctively cold environments are assembled in Blue Rhino Studio’s current facility. Source

Now, Blue Rhino Studio is focused on creating artwork and design for museums, visitor centers, and other educational institutions. Currently, their workspace is a large 16,000 square foot facility in Eagan, Minnesota. Here, they produce some of the most realistic and accurate sculptures, murals, and dioramas to date. This write-up will take a look at a few highlights from their incredible record of projects, starting with the most famous extinct proboscideans.

Mammoths and Mastodons:
Titans of the Ice Age

Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi), short-faced bear (Arctodus simus), and saber-toothed cat (Smilodon) sculptures at the Boston Museum of Science.
“Mammoths and Mastodons: Titans of the Ice Age” running at the Boston Science Museum in 2012. Source

A decade ago, Chicago’s Field Museum launched “Mammoths and Mastodons: Titans of the Ice Age”, a new and extraordinary traveling exhibition obviously focusing on mammoths and mastodons. Taking care to explore the lives and environments of these Ice Age taxa, Blue Rhino Studio was hired to create several exquisite sculptures for the exhibit.

Gomphotherium, Platybelodon, Phiomia, and Deinotherium heads with a Columbian mammoth replica in the background in the Blue Rhino Studio warehouse.
The heads of Gomphotherium and Platybelodon (on the left) and the heads of Phiomia and Deinotherium (on the right) sit in front of a Columbian mammoth in Blue Rhino Studio’s facility. Source

The exhibit, which traveled through the proboscidean family tree and included notable fossils such as the mammoth mummy “Lyuba”, featured several busts and sculptures of prehistoric proboscideans along with other Ice Age animals. A partial circle of Phiomia, Platybelodon, Gomphotherium, and Deinotherium heads created by Blue Rhino Studio helped portray proboscidean diversification, while a sculpture of Moeritherium showed the very base of the elephant family tree.

Models of Homotherium and the short-faced bear Arctodus were also created, standing in the same room as a massive Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth). These sculptures were all exceptionally detailed and accurate, truly immersing visitors around the world of extinct proboscideans.

Flying Pterosaurs and Antarctic Dinosaurs

Sculpture of Cryolophosaurus ellioti by Blue Rhino Studio at the Field Museum of Natural History in the Antarctic Dinosaurs exhibition.
Blue Rhino Studio’s model of a dinosaur with a pompadour. Photo by the author.

2018 was a stellar year for Blue Rhino Studio and the Field Museum, as they collaborated once more to produce two extraordinary projects. The first of these, ironically opening in the middle of the summer, was “Antarctic Dinosaurs”, a traveling exhibition focusing on the prehistoric life of Antarctica across the Phanerozoic (see my write-up here). It featured peeks into real paleontological work on the continent, a vision into the warmer Early Jurassic climate, and even a look at modern scientific research in Antarctica.

Sculpture of Antarctosuchus by Blue Rhino Studios at the Field Museum's Antarctic Dinosaurs exhibition.
An Antarctosuchus by Blue Rhino Studio lurches out towards visitors. Photo by the author.

Blue Rhino Studio created detailed sculptures of Cryolophosaurus, Antarctosuchus (pictured above), Glacialisaurus, a penguin, and two new unnamed sauropodomorphs. They also rigorously recreated environmental details, creating especially realistic portrayals of Antarctica’s environment in the Triassic, Early Jurassic, and even in the modern-day.

Models of Quetzalcoatlus and Rhamphorhynchus suspended in the Field Museum's Stanley Field Hall.
Quetzalcoatlus and Rhamphorhynchus fly over Patagotitan in the Field Museum’s (relatively) new Stanley Field Hall. Photo by the author.

As part of the same 2018 renovation that shifted “SUE” the Tyrannosaurus into her present exhibit, Blue Rhino Studio assisted the Field Museum in creating a new and magnificent look for their main hall. A collection of life-size pterosaur models was created by the studio, accompanying the already-stunning sight of “Máximo” the Patagotitan. Out in Stanley Field Hall, a massive Quetzalcoatlus replaced an older Pteranodon model, while a flock of much smaller Rhamphorhynchus swoop towards the North Entrance.

Standing Quetzalcoatlus model outside the entrance to the Field Museum's "Evolving Planet" exhibit, with a Pteranodon model in the background.
Pteranodon (or Geosternbergia) and Quetzalcoatlus occupy the gateway to “Evolving Planet”. Photo by the author.

In the halls behind the flying Quetzalcoatlus, another standing model of the space species was constructed, dwarfing visitors. Naturally, the size and presence of a seemingly alien creature up close turned it into one of the hottest photo spots in the museum. Flanking this second Quetzalcoatlus were two exquisitely preserved fossil slabs containing Rhamphorhynchus and Pterodactylus skeletons from the Solnhofen Limestone.

Sculpture of Pteranodon (or Geosternbergia) in a stairwell at the Field Museum of Natural History.
Pteranodon takes residence in the Field’s neoclassical stairwell. Photo by the author.

In the stairs around the North Entrance, two models of Pteranodon/Geosternbergia also soar above visitors. Like all the models covered previously, Blue Rhino Studio’s work was extremely accurate and finely detailed, creating a freshly stunning experience for the Field once again.

A Mammoth for the Bell

An Ice Age diorama featuring the giant beaver, a woolly mammoth, and a musk ox. Source

Another major project for Blue Rhino Studio was situated in their home state. The University of Minnesota’s St. Paul campus became host to the Bell Museum of Natural History just two years ago, and naturally, needed exhibits. Blue Rhino Studio was hired to create a glacial Ice Age scene with another mammoth (though this time, it was the most famous species). Every hair on the giant was individually attached by the studio, a testament to their incredible scrutiny and accuracy.

Castoroides gazes across the mess that it made. Source

Two more furry members of the Ice Age’s megafauna were also featured. Castoroides, the famous giant beaver, received a lifelike sculpture in the shadow of the woolly mammoth. An extant animal, the musk ox, was also positioned in front of Blue Rhino’s striking glacier. Among the Bell Museum’s planetarium, immersive (modern) dioramas, and green roof, the studio’s Ice Age creation still stands out as one of the most stunning sights in the institution.

SUE’s Second Tour

Sculpture of SUE the T. rex, holding an Edmontosaurus carcass, being worked on by Blue Rhino Studios.
Blue Rhino Studio desperately attempts to persuade SUE the Tyrannosaurus to let go of an Edmontosaurus. Source

As the Field Museum reopened during the COVID-19 pandemic in August, a sculpture of their most famous attraction was shown on Twitter. This distinctively bulky model of SUE, the FMNH’s star T. rex, is the latest collaboration between Blue Rhino Studio and the museum. Soon, it went on display in Stanley Field Hall, opposite from “Máximo” and the studio’s previous aerial creations. The rotund replication, holding a young Edmontosaurus, also includes pathologies from the SUE specimen, such as a bone infection above its left ankle, indicated by a large scar.

Sculpture of SUE the Tyrannosaurus rex holding a baby Edmontosaurus on display at the Field Museum of Natural History's main hall.
SUE, back in Stanley Field Hall. Photo by the author.

Not long after it arrived in the Field, it was shipped off to Iowa, as part of a new traveling exhibit, titled “SUE: The T. rex Experience”. Along with updated skeletal casts of SUE and a Triceratops, the exhibit revolves around the individual’s Hell Creek environment and the specimen’s discovery. Like many displays that Blue Rhino Studio has collaborated in, “SUE: The T. rex Experience” keeps immersion as one of its main priorities.

In a little over 20 years, Blue Rhino Studio has helped to create some of the most stunning paleontological displays in recent years. Even alongside stunning fossil specimens in some of these exhibits, their models and scenes easily steal the show. With hyperrealistic sculpting and extraordinary attention to scientific detail, Blue Rhino Studio is one of the greatest presences in the modern world of fossil halls.


Blue Rhino Studio. (n.d.). About.

Blue Rhino Studio. (2012, January 12). Chicago Field Museum|Mammoths and Mastadons Exhibition.

Blue Rhino Studio. (2018, June 29). Chicago Field Museum|Antarctic Dinosaurs.

Blue Rhino Studio. (2018, July 24). UMN’s Bell Museum | ICE AGE Exhibit.

Blue Rhino Studio. (2018, October 11). Chicago Field Museum|Stanley Field Hall Flying Pterosaurs.

Eler, A. (2018, July 13). 11 hairy, buggy, spacey things to do at the brand-new Bell Museum. Star Tribune.

Rogers, M. (2001, December 16). Blue Rhino Studio thinks big. Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal.

Science Center of Iowa. (n.d.). SUE: The T. rex Experience. Science Center of Iowa & Blank IMAX Dome Theater.

Switek, B. (2010, October 25). Exhibit Review: Mammoths and Mastodons. Wired.

Walley, M. (2020, August 5). Lifelike Replica of “Sue” T. rex Goes on Display. Everything Dinosaur.

The Hall of Closed Fossil Halls

Earlier this year, as the COVID-19 pandemic’s extreme severity became clear, museums around the world had to close their doors to visitors. Though some, like the Field Museum in Chicago and the Museum of Science in Boston, are now beginning to reopen in safe and socially-distanced environments, museums were some of the hardest-hit institutions during the global crisis.

A survey from the American Alliance of Museums estimated that around a third of U.S. museums will never reopen their doors after the pandemic and that 65% of these institutions had laid off or furloughed over 20% of their workers. However, in these dire situations, a few museums found methods to create significant progress in a newly isolated world. This post will cover a small assortment of these efforts.


In March, museum workers Sacha Coward and Dan Vo started a social media trend, #MuseumFromHome, among museums to share sixty-second videos showcasing their collections. Many institutions participated, engaging and educating visitors even through social distancing. Museums of all kinds shared unique items in their collections, from radios and pianos to photographic rubbings and a coyote skull.

Many natural history museums also engaged in the trend, sharing fossils from their collections and exhibits. These specimens ranged from Abingdon County Hall Museum’s fossil gastropods to the Royal Tyrrell Museum’s Champsosaurus mount. Museums also presented more than just fossil specimens, offering various talks, walkthroughs, and livestreams regarding their collections and research.

Screenshot of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History's virtual tour of its Deep Time fossil hall.
A screenshot from the Smithsonian’s virtual tour of their Deep Time hall. Source

Virtual tours have also become increasingly helpful for visitors to experience museums from their homes. Opened last year, the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History’s newly renovated Deep Time fossil hall, along with the museum’s numerous other exhibits, have all become accessible online with vivid 360-degree virtual tours. The American Museum of Natural History has also emphasized a virtual tour of their own, provided by Google Arts and Culture, along with several virtual field trips for educators.

A screenshot from the London Natural History Museum’s virtual tour. Source

The Natural History Museum in London also launched a spectacular 360-degree virtual tour on May 26 for clients looking to reserve its halls for events. Though the more limited views seem to have all been photographed at night, the NHM’s walkthrough gives the online public a stunning digital experience in its central Hintze Hall. The capability to create a virtual tour has also been obtained by other smaller museums during the COVID-19 crisis. The Burpee Museum of Natural History, which took an especially hard toll during the pandemic (the museum had to lay off 84% of its staff), has received grants to create virtual reality tours similar to the ones already offered by the Smithsonian and the NHM.

Penguins in the Field

Chicago’s Field Museum also took a heavy toll during its closure (it reopened on July 17). In that time, however, FMNH and the neighboring Shedd Aquarium were still able to uniquely engage visitors at home. During critical social-distancing in Chicago, the aquarium posted a series of videos showcasing “field trips” that a bonded pair of Magellanic penguins were taken on.

Though Shedd was the first of Chicago’s major museums to reopen, the series continued in collaboration with FMNH with a visit to their halls, as the penguins ventured around “Máximo” the Patagotitan in the empty Main Hall and explored the relatively new “SUE” exhibit in Evolving Planet.

Carnegie’s TikToks

One of the Carnegie’s videos on TikTok, featuring their world-renowned Diplodocus skeleton “Dippy”. Source

Pittsburgh’s Carnegie Museum of Natural History’s way of participating in the #MuseumFromHome trend was particularly unique. Having started releasing regular content on the recently popular social network TikTok in January, the museum saw it as a unique opportunity for education during the pandemic. In a less serious setting, Carnegie was able to engage their public with a series of lighthearted videos about their collections, exhibits, and work. The museum reopened in late June, also premiering the new temporary exhibition “Dinosaur Armor”.


Six 3D model cross-sections of viruses.
Three-dimensional viruses from the Smithsonian’s “Outbreak DIY”. Source

Coincidentally, the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History’s temporary exhibition “Outbreak: Epidemics in a Connected World” was running at the time as the origins of the COVID-19 pandemic. The exhibit was designed to communicate the risks and origins of epidemics in the modern world, soberingly relevant during the current pandemic.

An additional aspect of the exhibition is becoming increasingly important in places with reopening museums. In 2018, the Smithsonian also released a do-it-yourself version of the exhibit, which would allow institutions around the world to communicate to and engage visitors like the original exhibit has. With this, hospitals, schools, and other museums are all able to further educate their local communities about the origins of epidemics and responses against them.

City Nature Challenge 2020

A photo of a red fox in London taken by wildlife photographer Louis Guillot for the City Nature Challenge. Source

Since 2016, the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, in collaboration with the California Academy of Sciences, has organized the City Nature Challenge, a competition between cities to document as much urban biodiversity as possible. Since 2018, the event has expanded to the international stage. However, the City Nature Challenge, like everything else, had to adapt to COVID-19.

Interestingly, the NHMLA was able to keep the challenge safely running, even throughout the pandemic. This was achieved by taking away the competitive aspect of the City Nature Challenge, focusing on collaboration across the online community to document biodiversity. From April 24 to April 27, the event was able to engage more communities than ever before, as 244 cities from 40 countries collectively documented 32,600 species. This year’s challenge was a unique demonstration of a museum’s ability to unify the public even while isolated in a pandemic.

The Evolution of Whiteside

A massive skull replica of Sarcosuchus, one of many new additions to the Whiteside Museum of Natural History. Source

The Whiteside Museum of Natural History, a Texas institution much younger than the museums covered so far, also shut down for an enormous duration earlier this year. However, the WMNH’s employees utilized two months of its shutdown to vastly improve their exhibits, offering returning visitors a new and unique experience.

One of the major projects during the museum’s shutdown was the development of a new exhibit, the Science of Skulls. Displaying around 55 skulls, including extant and extinct taxa, the exhibit shows off the huge diversity in animal skull form and function. In particular, the new displays feature a replica of a Sarcosuchus imperator skull, displayed alongside crocodilian skulls that seem tiny in comparison.

Having reopened on June 2, the Whiteside Museum’s incredible renovation during its extended closure is a great example of improvement during extremely difficult times. The COVID-19 pandemic’s closure of museums was an ultimate test of their roles as public educators, and, across the globe, many institutions passed. Providing engaging virtual experiences and creating improved in-person exhibits, many museums were able to evolve in increasingly deadly situations.


American Alliance of Museums. (2020, July 22). A Snapshot of US Museums’ Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic. American Alliance of Museums.

Boston Museum of Science. (n.d.). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update. Museum of Science.

Bowman, E. L. (2018, November 7). ‘Outbreak’ exhibition connects world in fight against disease. ShareAmerica.

City Nature Challenge. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions relating to COVID-19. City Nature Challenge 2020.

Field Museum of Natural History. (2020, July 9). Field Museum reopening July 17; tickets on sale now [Press release].

Gary, A. (2020, July 2). Burpee Looks to Roar Back After Shutdown. Rockford Register Star.

Garza, J. (2020, June 2). Whiteside Museum Of Natural History reopens to public with new expansion. Nexstar Broadcasting, Inc.

Jackson, C. (2020, July 27). Whiteside Museum gets complete overhaul after being shut down for months. Nexstar Broadcasting, Inc.

John G. Shedd Aquarium. (2020, July 8). Famous Shedd Aquarium Penguin “Field” Trips Continue [Press release].

Natural History Museum, London. (2020, May 26). Natural History Museum Launches 3D Virtual Tour Technology [Press release].

O’Neill, J. (2020, March 31). The Carnegie Museum of Natural History’s #MuseumFromHome Strategy: Funny TikToks. American Alliance of Museums.

Sholts, S. (2020, February 26). How Museums Can Help the Public Make Sense of Pandemics. Smithsonian Magazine.

Susa, M. (2020, June 25). It’s a reopening weekend for many museums. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.


The media launch for the Tyrannosaurus specimen SUE just happened at the Field Museum, and for those of us that weren’t able to attend the launch(which is probably most people), Phil Hore has provided some great looks into the finished(?) exhibit. And… damn. This exhibit is a work of art.
I’m not going to touch too much on these details, as I should be going to visit FMNH PR 2081 sometime in the following weeks. But anyway, there’s a series of splendid video screens set up showing Hell Creek as it was in the latest Maastrichtian, a genius light show featuring the specimen itself, and some shadow displays.

Sue animation panels from Phil
Multiple video screens form one single story from the right perspective. Source

Triceratops SUE from Phil
A Triceratops skull, once set among the other ceratopsians in Evolving Planet, peers out. Source

Screenshot (91)
A light show creates animated shadows on the wall and even highlights specific bones on the mount. Source

And even without all the fancy lighting, the mount looks beautiful in the completed exhibit.

SUE August-December
The space around Sue has changed dramatically in just four months. Photo on the left by author, and photo on the right by Hore.

Dinosaurs of the Last Frontier(the southern one)

Antarctic Dinosaurs has been open at the Field Museum for some time now, but I’ve only just visited it in the last few weeks. This was absolutely one of the best traveling exhibits I’ve ever seen. Two visits haven’t been nearly enough for me to admire this exhibit in full. It will be at the Field Museum until early January of 2019, so, there’s plenty of time to run on over to Chicago and experience this excellent exhibit.

Antarctic Dinosaurs is split into six sections, dubbed: “Arrival to Antarctica”, “The Origin of Antarctica”, “Fossil Hunting in Antarctica”, “A World of Antarctic Dinosaurs”, “A Transformed Antarctica”, and “Lessons from Antarctica”. As many of the section titles indicate, there is a particular focus on the actual work that experts do in the field and in the lab. This type of focus on the people behind the specimens is always a very good addition to any paleontological exhibit, and Antarctic Dinosaurs is to be commended greatly for this. On almost all signage in the exhibit, there’s a clear format, with one side holding the normal text info, but with the other side in almost a comic book format, and many times including appearances by Pete Makovicky and Nate Smith, as seen below. But, without further ado, let’s arrive in Antarctica.

A map of Antarctica, Pete Makovicky, Nate Smith, Cryolophosaurus, and an airplane greet visitors at the entrance. Photo by the author.

Arrival to Antarctica is mainly about how people have explored Antarctica, and how exploration methods and technologies have changed from the time of Captain Robert Scott’s doomed exploration, to the modern day.


Turning to the right of that map of Antarctica, there’s a video projected on the wall, almost as a sort of “orientation” video introducing the Antarctic explorations of Scott to the visitors. Of course, it’s rather useless, since most visitors just walk right past it, especially since there’s no place to sit near the video(visitors love places to sit). Right next to this projection is a small display case, showcasing some of the first fossils collected and recorded from Antarctica.

Haploceras, Harnites, and Gryphaea are just some of the inverts featured in this display. Photo by the author.

Specimen cards from the Walker Museum accompany each fossil. Photo by the author.

This display case is full of fossils collected on the Swedish Antarctic Expedition(1901-1904) by Frank Stokes, an American artist specializing in Arctic/Antarctic art. These include ammonites(HarnitesOlcostephanus, and Haploceras), bivalves(Lucina), and crustaceans(Glyphaea). These fossils were donated to the University of Chicago’s Walker Museum. After several decades, the fossils found their way to the Field Museum. There’s also a vivid description of the expedition, written by Stokes himself, available online to read. To the side of this display, there’s a large timeline of the history of exploration in Antarctica, starting with the earliest explorations of Antarctica, like the Swedish Expedition, and ending with the expeditions of Bill Hammer and Makovicky.  The literal centerpiece of this section sits appropriately at the middle, between two huge photo murals of recent FMNH expeditions to Antarctica.

Sledges, shoes, and stuff. Photo by the author.

This central display moves away from fossils, and deals with equipment and artifacts from Scott’s doomed Terra Nova expedition. The largest object on display is an original sledge from the expedition. These sledges, judging from documents of the expedition, were used to haul pretty much anything that could fit. On the other side of the display, shoes, pants, coats, medals, and even pony snowshoes are displayed.

Feet clothes for ponies. Photo by the author.

The next display, naturally, is about modern gear used in Antarctic expeditions. This display features most prominently a full set of ECW(Extreme Cold Weather) gear on a mannequin, with each part labeled on a nearby diagram. Every person on an Antarctic exploration in the US Antarctic Program is issued a set of ECW gear. Right next to the ECWs, there’s a simulated plane interior, with a full set of red netted seats.


The next display, right next to the exit of the area, goes back to focus on Scott’s expeditions. It showcases 5 fossils collected on the expedition, including the famous Glossopteris fossils that helped inspire Alfred Wegener’s concept of continental drift. All of these fossils are on loan from the Natural History Museum in London.

The wood of Glossopteris sp. Photo by the author.

The other fossils in this display case include some other plant remains and a piece of carbonized sandstone. All three of these fossils were all found left behind by the dead explorers of Scott’s expedition. They had kept them until death because they were thought to be too valuable to be left behind, even when they weighed the explorers down. The only Scott expedition fossil on display that was brought back by surviving members of the expedition is a carbonized stem.

With a yellow ‘portal’, the exhibit moves to the origins of Antarctica. Photo by the author.

“Origins of Antarctica” is where the exhibit begins to really get into the paleontology of Antarctica, starting in the Late Permian to Late Triassic. In this section, the lighting takes on a completely different tone, with aurora australis trailing along the walls. The first display standing abruptly at the doorway is a model of Glossopteris indica.


Glossopteris, standing in front of a mural, is a striking sight. Besides serving its obvious educational purpose, it also serves an aesthetic purpose, adding a taste of habitat immersion into the exhibit. Right next to Glossopteris sits some more…Glossopteris. This next display case is all about continental drift, showing some of the most influential taxa, comparing the Antarctic examples to their African counterparts.

Glossopteris across two continents. Antarctic remains on the right, South African remains on the left. Photo by the author.

Antarctic Lystrosaurus on the left, and South African Lystrosaurus on the right. Photo by the author.

South African Thrinaxodon on the left, Antarctic Thrinaxodon on the right. Photo by the author.

6 fossils of four organisms are displayed here: Glossopteris browniana(South Africa), Glossopteris sp.(Antarctica), Lystrosaurus maccaigi, and Thrinaxodon liorhinus. The Antarctic fossils are all casts with the exception of Glossopteris sp., on loan from the University of Kansas. The South African fossils are all, as is expected, originals, due to the great South African fossil collections FMNH has. These fossils are accompanied by great artwork(don’t know the artist, help me out). While this display doesn’t convey the idea of continental drift all that well on its lonesome, it’s accompanied by a more interactive display.

When in doubt…

…use puzzle pieces. Photos by the author.

Building on from the previous display, this next one encourages visitors to use the occurrences of  various taxa across the world to piece together Pangaea. It also introduces Cynognathus, Procolophon, and Prolacerta as three new animals in the story of continental drift. Lines are drawn connecting the occurrences of each taxon across the Gondwanan continents, which makes it pretty easy for visitors, in the words of the exhibit, to “piece together the world”. On the other side of the room, the exhibit focuses on plants once more.

Kykloxylon, Neocalamites, and Dicroidium give a view into the world of Early Triassic Antarctica. Photo by the author.

This display, aptly titled “Seeing the Forest for the Trees”, is about how taking these fragments of trees, and reconstructing the environment and climate of Early Triassic Antarctica. This display is clearly not meant to be a very interesting one by itself, as nothing accompanies the fossils other than some informative text on a sign. However, as is the case with the two displays on the other side of the room, a much more interesting display about the Middle Triassic is paired with this one.

Modern Antarctica vs. Mid Triassic Antarctica. More different than day and night. Photo by the author.

This display on Gordon Valley offers a literal view into the environment of Triassic Antarctica, and a look at the stark contrast between modern and Triassic times. The signage here describes the situation in both areas. While snow and rock is all that covers modern Gordon Valley, lush vegetation and streams abound in the Triassic. And while researchers chip away at rock and excavate fossils, a much more different tetrapod lies on the opposite side.


The 2-metre long answer to the identity of the tetrapod is sprawled out in a similar pose, at the center of the exhibit.

Antarctosuchus says hi. Photo by the author.

Antarctosuchus is the centerpiece of this gallery, and is also prone to humans wrangling it, as clearly observed in the individual known as Phil Hore here. In the case of this model, lighting plays a great part, augmenting the presence of the giant amphibian. The terrain it lies on is also very impressive, and a very good example of habitat immersion. One thing that was especially surprising during my visit was the fact that not a single child tried to touch it despite it being exposed with no barriers of any kind. The world truly is a weird place…

Antarctosuchus, part two. Photo by the author.

Just behind the sculpture of Antarctosuchus sits Antarctosuchus itself. The partial holotype skull is on loan from AMNH. The type skull by itself is already a striking display, but a more optimal situation would be to have the teeth displayed alongside it. After all, the dental pattern and morphology is one of the main distinctive features of Antarctosuchus. Not much information is given on this Antarctosuchus display, since all the information was squeezed out by the signage near the sculpture. Next to the type specimen of Antarctosuchus sits the type skull of an even larger temnospondyl.

The cold roof. Photo by the author.

The much larger sterospondyl Kryostega is represented by an ironically smaller fossil. This, like Antarctosuchus, is also a type specimen on loan from AMNH. Accordingly, since Antarctosuchus‘ spotlight is in a different display, the spotlight has moved to Kryostega here, with one of those comic book-like illustrations. In the panels, as Makovicky contemplates Kryostega‘s life behavior, a Kryostega murders a fish, while what seems to be an Antarctosuchus swims in the background, and a dicynodont appears to scream.

IMG_8505 (2)
The most dramatic and action-packed illustration in the exhibit.

Other than another projection onto the wall of continental drift(which, again, nobody stopped to look at), that is the last display of this section. Through another yellow portal thing, the exhibit finally moves into what everybody’s been waiting for: dinosaurs.

Oh, you thought this section would have big dinosaur skeletons and models? You thought wrong. Source

This section, “Fossil Hunting in Antarctica”, is exactly what it sounds like. After the previous section, the exhibit focuses on the actual work of researchers once more. Across from a long seating area(never was there a time when the seats weren’t filled), four simulations of Antarctic strata stand, each symbolizing a step of the fossil excavation process. Each of these walls has a video projected on it showing the respective step, playing in order. (The videos playing are also the only time the walls get bright enough to take a photo.) These four sections are, from the entrance to the exit: Getting to the Site, Spot the Fossils, Get Out the Fossil, and another one that I might’ve forgotten the name of. Each of these walls has signage hidden among them, as well as dinosaur fossil casts(finally, dinosaurs). Naturally, as everybody is sitting across the room, nobody actually goes to look at these(it’s a pain trying to take photos of the casts while trying not to block the sitters). Near the exit, there’s are two displays on preparation tables. One is a touchable original fossil block from Antarctica, once again training visitors to spot fossils in a mound of matrix. The other display is far more interactive. That’s because it’s an air scribe, and air scribes are fun.

The constant buzzing sound will remind visitors of a dental appointment-traumatic for some, fun for others. Photo by the author.

Grab the air scribe, and it’ll immediately start buzzing away. It’s not much of an educational activity, but it’s enough for me to stand there for five minutes holding the scribe. It was surprising to see that almost nobody actually took notice of this display. My suspicion is that they thought it was just another untouchable model, which some bigger signage might’ve solved. And after this last display, visitors go through a big yellow portal once more. This next section is actually what everybody’s been waiting for.

Here’s those dinosaur fossils everybody’s been wanting to see. Photo by the author.

“A World of Antarctic Dinosaurs” starts with the star of the show: Cryolophosaurus. A reconstructed skeletal mount stands in the center of this first area, creating a cul-de-sac around which original specimens of Cryolophosaurus are displayed. This skeletal mount is a completely new reconstruction, very different from the Ultimate Dinosaurs reconstruction, which was the latest skeletal mount of Cryolophosaurus until now.

The frozen-crested lizard. Photo by the author.

Striding across the room, this mount shows off the large size of Cryolophosaurus, and a gracefulness not seen in other, more allosaur-esque reconstructions. This mount is the first skeletal mount that fully embraces the dilophosaur side of Cryolophosaurus, with a dilophosaurid scapula, a premaxillary notch, four fingers, and longer cervicals. A good amount of this mount is also made up of non-inferred material, possibly from the undescribed paratype revealed in the 2017 SVP abstracts. The signage circling this mount also makes a good deal of emphasis on the reconstruction process, showing a rigorous skeletal. The skeleton is labeled according to the years in which each specimen used was discovered, and all missing parts are stated to be inferred from Dilophosaurus. This is the most accurate Cryolophosaurus skeletal mount out there(although the allosaur-esque reconstruction still hasn’t died, as evidenced by that new one Ohio State just unveiled). Onto the bits and pieces all around the mount.

The holotype skull of C. ellioti. Photo by the author.

The most significant fossil displayed around the mount is, obviously, the original type skull. While an identical cast replica is on display upstairs in Evolving Planet, the different lighting regime, and the upraised Styrofoam block holding it up make a significant difference in the feel of this specimen. First, it feels more like an actual skull now that it’s in a more vertical position, and second, details are much more distinguishable when the display area doesn’t have a lighting color nearly identical to the color of the bone. The type skull is accompanied by a display nearby about the various crests of early theropods(Dracovenator and Sinosaurus get surprising mentions here). An isolated braincase is also on display. Both of these skull fossils are illustrated on a rigorous skeletal of the skull, shown on the signage below. The braincase in particular connects to the next display, of the brain’s features. A rotatable digital model created from a CT scan is also present on a touchscreen.

There are three other displays of the Cryolophosaurus specimens around the area, each one focusing on a different part of the body. One display is all about the limbs, another about the pubis, and one about the verts. The left femur is one of the most significant finds, considering how complete and well-preserved it is, as well as being the first bone found. The pubis, on the other hand, is also remarkably complete, and is used by the exhibit to show the basal status of Cryolophosaurus. The vertebrae are used to show a variety of topics, including phylogeny and growth. The single cervical vert is used by a nearby display on pleurocoels, as a touchable cast. Moving away from the fossils, the exhibit once again delves into the world of habitat immersion.


Eh…(Photo by the author.)

The habitat immersion here becomes pretty good, and the models have pretty good accuracy. The Cryolophosaurus doesn’t have broken wrists, it has filaments, and the proportions are all accurate. However, it also lacks lips, which isn’t a huge issue, but it still takes down the accuracy a bit. And even then, a lipless Cryolophosaurus is still acceptable, even if it’s not what’s most preferred. The visible antorbital fenestra might be indicative of shrinkwrapping, although I’m not 100% sure on that. However, even with a pretty accurate model, it just doesn’t feel all that appealing as a model. It doesn’t feel like it could pose as a living animal. Or maybe I’m just seeing things. It’s all subjective, after all. Near the foot of the Cryolophosaurus, there are some teeth in a glass case.

Isolated teeth referred to Cryolophosaurus ellioti. Photo by the author.

These isolated teeth are claimed to be those of juvenile Cryolophosaurus by the exhibit, and according to the signage, this isn’t a dubious referral. Besides the matching morphology, the microscopic structure also matches that of the older Cryolophosaurus. These shed teeth were discovered at the same place as the Cryolophosaurus type, indicating that the owner of the teeth was feeding on it. In the mural behind, a homage to these teeth is shown in the form of a juvenile Cryolophosaurus scavenging on an an adult’s carcass. On the other side of the habitat hall, a group of sauropodomorphs browse.

Lighting and habitat immersion create an environment completely different from the striding Cryolophosaurus just on the other side. Photo by the author.

This exhibit here introduces an (as of yet) undescribed sauropodomorph(referred to as “Sauropodomorph A”) to visitors. Three models in different poses accompany a mural illustrating a large herd of these small sauropodomorphs. I’m sure that these models are incredibly accurate, and, subjectively, they look much more like living animals than the Cryolophosaurus. This sauropodomorph, nicknamed the “Jolly Roger”, was discovered in 2010 by its namesake, Roger Smith, and is one of the two undescribed sauropodomorphs on display in “Antarctic Dinosaurs”. As for the signage, kudos to the exhibit for not using the term “prosauropod”. Like Cryolophosaurus on the other side of the room, another small display case sits near these sauropodomorphs.

An indeterminate dimorphodontid humerus(on the left) and a tritylodont tooth(on the right). Photo by the author.

This small display goes into the non-dinosaurs of the Hanson Formation. One of them is an isolated humerus of a pterosaur(most likely something akin to Dimorphodon) and the other is an isolated tritylodont synapsid molar. These are the only fossils of a pterosaur or synapsid discovered from the formation, accompanied by some…slightly less optimal artwork. Meanwhile, the display of sauropodomorph models serves as a prelude to the next display.

Sauropodomorph A, in the bone. Photo by the author.

This display focuses on the fossil remains of the “Jolly Roger”, including a 3D printed skeletal reconstruction. It actually progresses in the stages of making the skeleton. Even in the immersion part of the exhibit, it still manages to emphasize the work behind the exhibit. There are three stages focused on in this display, going from the actual fossils themselves to the full skeletal mount. The first stage consists of a display case housing numerous blocks of sauropodomorph A remains, including a beautiful skull.

The skull of Sauropodomorph A. Photo by the author.

Along with an amazing skull, several other elements of the “Jolly Roger” are on display. One particularly large block includes limbs, ribs, dorsal vertebrae, and caudal vertebrae. A rigorous skeletal also accompanies the fossils, along with the statement that the “Jolly Roger” is in fact most closely related to the South African Ignavusaurus. The next stage, like the Cryolophosaurus display from before, is also about the digital stage. It involves a touchscreen with a rotatable digital model(created with a CT scan) of one large block. However, this time, visitors are able to distinguish the various skeletal elements encased in the block. And lastly, there’s the skeletal mount.

The 3-D printed skeletal mount of the “Jolly Roger”. Photo by the author.

As the sauropodomorph is undescribed, there’s no way to actually determine if the proportions are correct. The mount also has gastralia, which is a plus. When looking at the skeleton, this sauropodomorph actually has rather weird proportions. The tail looks a bit shorter than one would expect, and the legs are also especially short(then again, according to the exhibit, this thing would have been occasionally quadrupedal). The signage here mainly dumps a huge amount of information about digital modeling into visitors’ brains. The next display focuses on sauropodomorphs once more, including a much more massive massospondylid.

A small sauropodomorph, and a bigger sauropodmorph. Photo by the author.

A second undescribed sauropodomorph is introduced here(the green one in the photo above), referred to as Sauropodomorph B. This sauropodomorph also has a nickname: “Spence”. “Spence” is slightly longer than the “Jolly Roger”, although both are roughly the same height. Sauropodomorph B is actually most closely related to Leonerasaurus, hence its stockiness compared to Sauropodomorph A. Sauropodomorph B is much less complete, consisting only of the area around the hips, which are displayed in a nearby display case.

All of Sauropodomorph B. Photo by the author.

The signage here states that Sauropodomorph B is clearly a new species, due to these hips, verts, and limbs parts having especially distinctive features. Another question that’s also touched on is whether or not “Spence” is actually just a young Glacialisaurus. It’s refuted, noting that the bones are fused, showing the animal was fully grown. Some may wonder why that question is touched on randomly, but it makes sense in the museum context. I still remember the Tyrannosaurs: Meet the Family exhibit just a couple months ago, where everybody thought Dilong paradoxus was a baby Tyrannosaurus. Obviously, by now you’ve noticed the huge brown sauropodomorph right next to the green plaque mount of Sauropodomorph B.

The legs of Glacialisaurus. Photo by the author.

On the plaque mount, casts of the limb bones of Glacialisaurus are mounted in their life positions, as the near 2-D sculpture towers over Sauropodomorph B. The holotype specimen of Glacialisaurus is displayed in the same nearby case as Sauropodomorph B’s only remains, including the relatively famous type foot. A partial femur, tibia, and shin bone are also on display. As with Sauropodomorphs A and B, the closest relative of Glacialisaurus, Lufengosaurus, is also shown. This is the last big display of non-avian dinosaurs. The end to this section is a display about the day and night of Antarctica.

A rather normal sunlight-earth model shows the reason behind Antarctica’s darkness. Photo by the author. 

This display, a rather small stand with a rotatable sun-earth model, uses Earth’s tilt to illustrate the extreme light patterns of Antarctica, both in the Early Jurassic, and all the way to now. Fittingly, this display is also in a rather dark area. As it turns out, this looks rather like an arcade game for kids, so it’s hard to even take a photo when they crowd around this thing. And with that, the Early Jurassic is done. Through a yellow portal once again, the Cretaceous begins.

Small fragments represent the dinosaurs of Cretaceous Antarctica. Photo by the author.

“A Transformed Antarctica” has a humble start, with just a small display of Cretaceous dinosaurs. Even here, they still manage to give a good amount of information on the work behind the scenes. This display is mainly about how researchers take small indeterminate specimens and are able to determine the group it belongs to. There’s a hadrosaur tooth, a titanosaur caudal, and a foot from a small coelurosaur. For each specimen, distinguishing features are noted in the form of another comic book-like conversation between Makovicky and Eric Gorscak. After this display, the exhibit focuses on the environment once more, in the form of one more projection on the wall of the chilling of Antarctica’s environment. Once again, pretty much nobody stops to watch. Right next to the projection, the exhibit dives into the Cretaceous seas.

Fish fossils and ammonites introduce the Cretaceous seas. Photo by the author

A modest-looking case of fish, ammonites, and shells serves as an insight into the smaller fauna of marine Cretaceous Antarctica. Not much especially interesting specimens are on display, but this, in fact, is only a set-up for the star of the section.

Taniwhasaurus-the last mount of the exhibit. Photo of the author.

A cast of Taniwhasaurus antarcticus swims across the section, almost looking as if it was lunging at prey. This particular cast is based off of the 23 foot long specimen IAA 2000-JR-FSM-1 at the Argentine Antarctic Institute. This certainly isn’t the largest mosasaur out there, but in a small space such as this one, it makes an imposing sight. (Confusingly, on the prospectus for the exhibit, this display was symbolized by a Rhomaleosaurus skeleton.) The skeleton is almost perfectly posed with the mural behind it, and the dynamic pose makes it feel like this could actually be a real animal swimming through the sea. This is the last of the Mesozoic displays.

Or maybe not…Photo by the author.

Putting aside the headless brontosaur figure that a kid must have placed on the next display(I’m questioning the kid’s sanity since the head is gone), this next display moves on to the Cenozoic, around the late Eocene. This is the time when Antarctica began to freeze.

Fish teeth and spines added with a certain flightless bird are displayed here. Photo by the author.

A vision of life in Antarctica before the freeze is given in the form of six fish fossils, including the spine of a chimaera, and a cow shark tooth. These fossils were all collected on Seymour Island, and all have been dated to the Late Eocene. A great diversity of fish are shown here, but the only non-fish here is a sign of the impending disappearance of organisms. A single penguin tarsometatarsus is a sign of the changing fauna once Antarctica freezes over. This specimen, on loan from the Jackson School Museum of Earth History, shows the stubbiness of the bone that makes penguins have their waddle. Oh, right, there’s also an emperor penguin standing nearby.

The last dinosaur in the exhibit. Photo by the author.

From this point, the exhibit no longer has a strict focus on prehistory. The next, and last section focuses on the present and the future.

What Antarctica holds for science. Photo by the author.

“Lessons from Antarctica” focuses on how researchers of all specialties and all nationalities can go to Antarctica to better understand the continent. It’s split into five small displays: meteorites, fossil pollen, an ice core, ice shelves, and lichens. In the meteorite section, a fragment of pallasite(a rare type of stone meteorites) found in 1961 is on display. In the fossil pollen section, it’s exactly what you would expect: fossil pollen. But the ice core is an especially interesting display.

A replica of an ice core. Photo by the author.

Ice cores are simply large samples from big ice sheets that give a look into the history of the sheet, and how the environment around it has changed over time. The ice core on display in “Antarctic Dinosaurs” is only a replica, but has those distinctive bands acting as symbols of environmental changes. The next display, about glaciers and ice shelves, is just a large sign, without any actual display items. And the last display, about lichens, includes lichens using black discs as sunblock, and a lichen growing on substrates. All of these small displays circle around a single projection in the middle of the room.


In the very center, a constant projection of a map of Antarctica glows. This is a symbol of all the nationalities present in Antarctica, doing research. It’s very much a symbol for the future of Antarctic science. Antarctica is a continent for the entire world. That’s the closing message of “Antarctic Dinosaurs”.

























The Mounts of Deep Time

Well, guess it’s time to cover more of “Deep Time”. In this post, mounts shown on the website, video, and on social media will be covered. So, without further ado, let’s dive into the skeletal mounts of NMNH.

Nation's T. rex frontal
The star of “Deep Time”. Source

Naturally, the main attraction of the fossil hall will be the T. rex display. This mount is probably the most publicized display in “Deep Time” out there. It’s a spectacular mount, portraying the Nation’s T. rex(the original specimen of what used to be dubbed “Wankel Rex”) attempting to decapitate a cast of the Smithsonian’s staple Triceratops, “Hatcher”. There is no doubt that this display will be incredibly accurate. Research Casting International is at the top of their field. You can even see a scar of battle on “Hatcher”, on its left horn, where the tip is broken off. From another view, the ribs of Hatcher are slightly cracked from the foot of Tyrannosaurus One great thing about the mount of “Wankel” is that reconstructed portions(excluding the cast skull) are clearly marked out, showing visitors that complete skeletons aren’t as common as older museum exhibits would cause them to believe. For me, this is probably going to be the most spectacular mount of a real Tyrannosaurus specimen in the world.


Megaloceros is one of the NMNH’s oldest fossil mounts, having been put on display in the Smithsonian “castle” in 1872. All renditions of the mount so far have been in the standard, regal, pose that almost all Megaloceros mounts are in. Therefore, this sitting pose is a very nice change from orthodox. According to Extinct Monsters, the sitting pose was chosen because those huge antlers will now be brought down to near-eye level. This will probably offer a completely different perspective on the antlers of Megaloceros, and emphasize the extravagance and huge size of them. Next, one of my favorite mounts of Deep Time.

Deep Time Smilodon
Pure awesomeness. Source

The Smithsonian’s new Smilodon mount has got to be one of the most dynamic and unique mammal mounts in the hall. Looking at concept art, it’s going to be in its own little glass display, and it’s going to be essentially lunging towards the visitor. The pose is also not just good for aesthetics, but also good for showing off those huge teeth better, since they’ll be much closer to the visitors. It almost feels like an accented version of the old mount of Smilodon, in which it was in a pose very much like this, but with a more upraised body, in a confrontation with a Paramylodon(which will not be returning).

Diplodocus Deep Time
The construction of the NMNH Diplodocus, with a Christmas tree in the background. Source

The dismantling of the Smithsonian’s Diplodocus in 2014 marked the first time the entire mount was moved in 83 years. As of July 31st, the Diplodocus is under construction, with its head craning out(presumably hanging above the visitors), once again in normal diplodocid horizontal fashion(because Taylor et al. 2009 doesn’t exist). It really does look like a pretty normal Diplodocus mount, which is a bit disappointing, considering that so much other new mounts in Deep Time have dynamic poses. Oh, and there’s the little nitpick of not being able to take good photos of the entire mount without that giant cardboard-looking conifer in the way. In the background of the photo, you can see two displays completed already: the mastodon and the Xiphactinus. And so, let’s transition into those two displays a bit.

Deep Time (2)
An unfortunate situation for the Indiana mastodon. Source

Unlike it seems in the first photo, the mastodon will not be displayed alone. Two (presumably human) hunters will be tossing spears at the giant proboscidean. A human hunting scene like this is a very nice addition to Deep Time, emphasizing one main topic of the exhibit: the impact of humans on this planet. That impact is very much reflected in this display. This new mount will be much more dynamic than the rather plain standing pose it’s assumed in previous incarnations of the fossil hall. Now, moving on to the fish.

Deep Time Xiphactinus
R.I.P. Thryptodus. Source

The pose of the Xiphactinus in Deep Time is identical to its pose in the pre-2014 fossil halls for obvious reasons. This specimen has technically been off-display for much longer than other returning specimens, due to the August 2011 earthquake that closed the upper mezzanine, where Xiphactinus was displayed. In the new hall, it will be brought down much closer to ground level, displayed next to what presumably is Tylosaurus. In Ed Yong’s article for The Atlantic, which the photo of the Diplodocus is from, it’s also stated that the Eremotherium, the Smithsonian’s resident giant ground sloth, is also completed. Anyway, moving on to the NMNH’s other sauropod, Camarasaurus.

Deep Time Camarasaurus
It seems the Camarasaurus wants to munch on that shabby-looking conifer. Source

The new pose of the NMNH Camarasaurus is very unique and very dynamic. And it’s a huge improvement of the roadkill-type display it was in during the age of the pre-2014 fossil halls. This pose comes at a surprise, due to the Camarasaurus not being seen rearing up in the concept art of Deep Time. But it’s a very welcome surprise, because this will very much emphasize the size of Camarasaurus, in much contrast to the old display.  But…that tree is just…really poorly done. It doesn’t even seem like they’re trying to do any convincing habitat immersion.

And so, we are done. Much new details on mounts are expected to trickle through in the next year, so be on the lookout for that.

One Step Closer to the National Fossil Hall

“Earth’s distant past is connected to the present and informs our future.” 

With that line, the countdown to the reopening of the National Fossil Hall began. Yesterday, coinciding with the arrival of the Nation’s T. rex returning to the National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian launched a new version of the National Fossil Hall’s renovation, starring the mount of the Nation’s T. rex decapitating the Smithsonian’s Triceratops, “Hatcher”. It is a huge improvement from the old website, which essentially ceased any activity in November. There isn’t too much new information on the website’s text that hasn’t been released already, since the text given on the website is already pretty brief. The true gold mine of this is the video on the website. A ton of information, new and old, is given on this video. The website also has released photos of many new mounts and specimens that are going to be in the exhibit. For now, we’ll just cover the information given in text and speech. But there’s one very intriguing quote from both the video and the text on the website: “Deep Time starts at the very beginning-4.6-billion-years ago. But it ends in the future.” This makes it sound as if the exhibit starts with the earliest life, and moves forward in time. Now, to people who aren’t familiar with the information on Deep Time that has been released up until now, this may seem normal for an chronological exhibit, just like Evolving Planet at the Field Museum. However, in the past, the Smithsonian has repeatedly stated that Deep Time will be an exhibit that starts at the present day, and moves backward in time. There are three possibilities that come from this statement:

  1. Deep Time will be an exhibit that has an entrance leading into displays about the beginning of life, and will progress forward in time, to the present.
  2. Deep Time will have two entrances: one at the present-day, and one at the beginning of life.
  3. The quote above is not referring to the exhibit itself, and instead is implying something symbolic about the exhibit. In this case, Deep Time will have an entrance at the present-day, and an exit at the beginning of life.

Of course, if we go in the direction of cases 1 and 2, it becomes even more complicated when in the video, they once again assert that the exhibit is going to start in the present, not the past. Anyway, onto the other parts of the video. For the first part of the video, there’s a moment when they continually fortify that Deep Time is going to be a very stunning exhibit, and that it’s going to be a spectacle of sorts. In that portion, Siobhan Starrs says that visitors are going to walk in, and look up at the T. rex. This indicates that the T. rex is going to be visible from the entrance of the exhibit, which we’ll assume is from the present day. This sort of contradicts the older concept art, in which the Cenozoic section curves in a way that would block the T. rex from view. In the second portion of the video, they begin actually discussing the hall itself. One notable detail mentioned is that there’s going to be multiple touchable original fossils in the exhibit. This is a good strategy to make visitors feel more involved, and to also please kids, but there’s a reason that most exhibits only include one or two touchable fossils. But, I suppose with a collection as large as the one of the Smithsonian, you can do that sort of stuff. One part that makes me sort of nervous is when they begin discussing feeling the textures of different bones, and they mention that the visitors are going to be able to touch the bone of a skull. Now, the image they show to correspond with this moment is a Centrosaurus skull. Maybe they just chose a random skull for that image, but the idea of an entire Centrosaurus skull being touchable sounds quite risky to me. One more positive detail they mention is that there’s going to be a lot of educators and volunteers in the fossil hall, and, from the concept art featured, it seems like these educator and volunteer stations are going to have a ton of resources, definitely more than those in educating stations at other museums. The final portion of the video discusses the Anthropocene displays that will be in the exhibit, basically rehashing details that have already been given before. Anyway, soon, it’s going to be time to look at the plethora of concept art given on the website.